The Alleged Rebellious Scots "Verse" De-bunked

God Save the Queen Book by Percy A Scholes

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The notion that a verse about "Marshal Wade" crushing "Rebellious Scots" is, or ever was, part of the British National Anthem is thoroughly debunked in this 5,500 word examination of the evidence.

Working from primary sources Alistair McConnachie discovers that the original 3 published verses of what became the British National Anthem are virtually the same as the 3 verses of the National Anthem today.
Posted 29th May 2013.

On the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the Queen's Coronation (2nd June 1953) this seems an appropriate time to de-bunk the tiresome and incorrect notion - usually heard from nationalists - that the National Anthem "includes a verse" about Marshal Wade "crushing rebellious Scots".

It is testament to the utter failure, in modern times, to teach British constitutional history in our schools that such ridiculous myths can acquire purchase.

This verse - which in this article we shall refer to as the "Marshal Wade" verse - is sometimes described as "the second verse", or sometimes the "fourth", or "fifth", verse. In fact, it is none of these.

As we will show, it would be last sung (if at all) in late 1745 at the time of Marshal Wade's endeavours to find and fight the Jacobite insurgence into England, led by Charles Edward Stuart ("Bonnie Prince Charlie"). Furthermore, it was never part of "the National Anthem", which did not become established as such until the beginning of the 19th century.

Today, the National Anthem of the United Kingdom usually consists of two verses and sometimes three. As we show, these 3 verses are virtually the same as the 3 verses which were originally published in the October 1745 edition of the Gentleman's Magazine, which had published them as a result of the recent first public performances of "God Save the King", in September of that year.

Let us first locate this song in its historical context.

The Battle of Prestonpans, near Edinburgh, was the first major conflict between the Jacobites led by Charles Edward Stuart and the Hanoverians led by General Sir John Cope. It took place on 21 September 1745. The Jacobite and Catholic, Charles Stuart, was attempting to claim the throne of Britain from the Hanoverian and Protestant George II.

Protestants, throughout Britain, were afraid of a Catholic on the throne if the Jacobites succeeded.

Charles and his forces headed south in an attempt to take London, and by 4 December 1745 had got as far south as Derby. During this time Field Marshal George Wade and his British forces attempted unsuccessfully to find and fight the Jacobites. Consequently, with Charles Stuart's forces known to be so close (130 miles or so), there was much fear and alarm in London during this latter quarter of 1745.

This was the short 3-month period when the "Marshal Wade" verse may have been sung.

By the beginning of the New Year, Marshal Wade had been replaced by George II's son, the Duke of Cumberland, who pursued Charles and his forces back into Scotland and beat them decisively at Culloden on 16 April 1746.

In researching this article, we were astonished to find an online copy of the October 1745 edition of the Gentleman's Magazine. 1 It was in this edition, on page 552, that all 3 of the verses of what was to eventually become the National Anthem were first published (see screen-grab below right).

In the same edition, we also found the address of George II to both Houses of Parliament earlier that month. His opening paragraph is worth quoting because it gives a sense of the attitude at the time. It begins:

My Lords and Gentlemen,
THE open and unnatural rebellion, which has broke out, and is still continuing in Scotland, has obliged me to call you together sooner than I intended; and I shall lay nothing before you at present, but what immediately relates to our security at home, reserving all other considerations to a farther opportunity. So wicked and daring an attempt, in favour of a popish pretender to my crown, headed by his eldest son, carried on by numbers of traitorous and desperate persons within the kingdom, and encouraged by my enemies abroad, requires the immediate advice, and assistance of my parliament to suppress and extinguish it. 2

It is within this context of national emergency, and opposition towards a Catholic Britain, that the birth of what eventually was to become the National Anthem is to be understood.

Dr Percy A Scholes, the author of the most comprehensive history of the British National Anthem yet written, God Save the Queen! The History and Romance of the World's First National Anthem 3 points out that the first two verses had appeared originally in a musical publication called Thesaurus Musicus.

He says this "appeared between 20 April and 16 November 1744. The above is probably as near as we shall ever get to a decision on the precise date of the first appearance in print of God Save the King." 4

He notes that the musical director of Drury Lane Theatre in London, a certain Thomas Arne (also the composer of Rule, Britannia! 6 months earlier) will have spotted that "its impassioned words and bold air were exactly suited to the mood of the moment, and had decided to make use of it." 5

Thus it was that Arne arranged the first public performance at Drury Lane Theatre on the evening of Saturday, 28 September 1745, one week after the Battle of Prestonpans. The 3 soloists were Mrs Cibber (Arne's sister), John Beard and Thomas Reinhold. Such was the acclaim that the performance was repeated every night. Covent Garden Theatre also took it up, after witnessing the enthusiasm of the audiences.

Sometime in the short period between the first public performance and the publication of the October 1745 edition of the Gentleman's Magazine, a third verse was added.

God save the King, Gentleman's Magazine, October 1745 at page 552

As can be seen from the screen-grab - taken from the digital copy of the original magazine - the 3 verses published in this magazine, a month after the Battle of Prestonpans, are as follows:

God save great GEORGE our king,
Long live our noble king.
God save the king.
Send him victorious,
Happy and glorious,
Long to reign over us.
God save the king.

O Lord, our God arise,
Scatter his enemies,
And make them fall;
Confound their politics,
Frustrate their knavish tricks,
On him our hopes we fix,
O save us all.

Thy choicest gifts in store
On George be pleas'd to pour,
Long may he reign:
May he defend our laws,
And ever give us cause,
To say with heart and voice
God save the king.

Note that there is no contentious "fourth" verse! These 3 verses are virtually the same as the 3 verses sung today. Today, the "second verse" is the same except that "Thee" replaces "him" in the penultimate line, and "God" replaces "O" in the final line.

There is also no call in this verse to "frustrate their Popish tricks" as is sometimes suggested - although it is, of course, possible that such a line may have been sung by some people at that time.

The third verse today has "sing" rather than "say".

Today, usually only the first and third verses are sung.

Buckingham Palace has never approved any version, believing the words evolve "as a matter of tradition rather than official decree". 6

Today, the Official Website of the British Monarchy states:

There is no authorised version of the National Anthem as the words are a matter of tradition. Additional verses have been added down the years, but these are rarely used.

The words used today are those sung in 1745, substituting 'Queen' for 'King' where appropriate. On official occasions, only the first verse is usually sung.

The words of the National Anthem are as follows:

God save our gracious Queen!
Long live our noble Queen!
God save the Queen!
Send her victorious,
Happy and glorious,
Long to reign over us,
God save the Queen.

Thy choicest gifts in store
On her be pleased to pour,
Long may she reign.
May she defend our laws,
And ever give us cause,
To sing with heart and voice,
God save the Queen. 7

These are also the same two verses which have been listed as the National Anthem in the Church of Scotland's Church Hymnary since 1898. 8

It is correct to say that the original 3 verses from 1745 are still, with only minor amendments, the same ones which exist today.

That should be enough to demonstrate that there is no mysterious verse about "Rebellious Scots", or indeed any other strange and additional, yet somehow hidden, verses of the National Anthem.

However, let us delve deeper to discover the origin of the Marshal Wade verse...

The first time the verse is documented is on page 8 of Richard Clark's 1822 work (76 years after Culloden) entitled, An Account of the National Anthem entitled God Save the King! 9

By this time, as per the title of his book, the song had risen from merely being an "Anthem" to being the "National Anthem".

On page 8 he claims that the verse had been "occasionally added" but he details no authority for this claim. We have to take his word for it. He does not mention the verse again anywhere in his comprehensive 208-page work.

At this point, it really does appear to come out of nowhere. He lists it as:

Lord, grant that Marshal Wade,
May by thy mighty aid
Victory bring.
May he sedition hush,
and like a torrent rush
Rebellious Scots to crush!
God save the King!

At Most it was a Temporary, Short-Lived, Addition
The next time it makes an appearance is in the October 1836 edition of Gentleman's Magazine, pp. 369-374 (not in 1837 as Wikipedia wrongly states) in an article about the genesis of the song by a Mr Urban (Slyvanus Urban - the pen name of Edward Cave, the editor and publisher of the magazine). 10

Urban mentions it briefly and says that his source for this verse is Richard Clark's work, above, and he says also that he heard it from a friend who heard it from others who heard it at the time!

He writes on page 373 (our emphases):

There is an additional verse, which, from the coetaneous nature of its contents, may almost be called a part of the original Song of 1745: though, being of temporary application only, it was but short-lived. Mr. Clark has given a copy of it in p. 8; and it was also stored in the memory of an old friend of my own (who was born in the very year 1745, and was thus the associate of those who heard it first sung.) It is this:

Oh! grant that Marshal Wade
May by thy gracious aid
Victory bring;
May he sedition hush,
And like a torrent rush
Rebellious Scots to crush,
And the French King!

Note how it differs from the version which Clark claims to have been "occasionally added" (Urban acknowledges that fact in a footnote.)

From the above text, Urban makes it clear that this verse was not used in the aftermath of the Jacobite conflict. It was but "temporary" and "short-lived". He is also unable to locate any other source for it other than Clark's unreferenced claim, and the convoluted hear-say process of quite literally hearing it from a friend who...heard it from a friend who...heard it from another!

None of this pins anything down!

There are No First Person Contemporary Accounts of anyone Singing this Verse
There are no reports of anyone writing anywhere that they themselves heard this verse sung, or that they sung it at the time that Marshal Wade was leading the British forces - September 1745-December 1745 - or shortly thereafter. The best we have are the two sources from Clark and Urban above.

Scholes seems so dismissive of the verse that he doesn't even list it in his masterwork wherein he recounts scores of alternative verses.

The sentiment would be supported by most Scots, since most Scots opposed the Jacobites. The whole history of Britain would have been changed if the rebellion had not been "crushed".

Perhaps today, to our politically-correct ears, the word "Scots" seems to generalise too much. Perhaps it would have been better if it had just said "Rebellious Stuarts" or "Rebellious Jacobites", but then the verse would not have scanned properly.

We have read various people who don't know any better saying things like "this verse is rarely sung today", or such like things. 11

How absurd. Of course it is never sung! As a verse, it is extremely time-specific. It is praying for Wade's success in his actions against the Jacobites during the period after Prestonpans, September 1745. It is unlikely to have been sung in earnest any time after December 1745 when Marshall Wade was replaced, and not after April 1746 when the Jacobites were defeated.

Even more to the point, Wade died two years after Culloden, on 14 March 1748. It would be even more ridiculous to sing it after he died!

We suggest that this verse is unlikely to have been sung after December 1745, probably not after April 1746, and certainly not after March 1748, when Marshal Wade died.

Scholes has written that it was "from some undecided period" that the usual 3 verses began to be called "The National Anthem" (p. 54) but has suggested that "it may have been its extensive and popular use during and after his [George III] distressing mental illnesses (1765, 1788-9, 1804, and 1811 to his death in 1820) that accustomed people to regard it in the light of a permanent 'National Anthem'." 12

Linda Colley has written:

Not until the early 1800s would this song come to be called the national anthem, a term that the British invented, and that confirms just how closely national identity in Great Britain was yoked to religion. In 1745, the song's status was much less formal, but it was disseminated effectively enough through being sung in church services and by way of the print network. Newspapers and monthly magazines quickly supplied their readers with the words and music; even the Scots Magazine [November 1745, see below, Appendix 2] printed it, despite the fact that Scotland was still technically under Jacobite occupation. And it was spread among the poor by way of broadsheets and by the ballad singers, who would sing the words to those who could not read them in return for half a penny or less. Hogarth painted one of these women in his March to Finchley, a tumultuous evocation of the king's forces assembling in one of the poorer London districts in readiness for their march north to do battle with Charles Edward Stuart and his men. 13

Certainly, by the time of Richard Clark's 1822 treatise, which included the phrase in its title, it had become "the National Anthem".

What this means is that during the short 3-month or so period when the Marshal Wade verse was possibly sung, it was not being sung as part of "the National Anthem". It was at that time still simply a rousing music-hall sing-along song.

By the time the usual 3 verses had become established as "the National Anthem" - around the beginning of the 19th century - the Marshal Wade verse had long since been left behind in the music hall.

Perhaps in jest, surely not in earnest! Around about 2009, we received an email from a woman who told us that it had been sung at a Conservative Student University Dinner in England, that she had attended a couple of years previously. That sounds possible. No doubt it would be sung drunkenly and in jest, and probably as a way to wind-up any Scottish members present.

Someone claimed in a letter to The Scotsman in 2012 to have sung it in 1965 as part of a Boys Brigade service. Possibly? However, his claimed source for the verse is absolutely not credible - as we responded, below.

This extraordinary letter appeared in The Scotsman on Friday 13 April 2012, from a person claiming that the Marshal Wade verse appeared in the official Church of Scotland "Church Hymnary" appended to the back of a King James Bible issued by the Boy's Brigade. This person claims that he was forced to sing the verse from this Hymnary in 1965.

We sent the following letter to The Scotsman on the evening of 14 April 2012. Disappointingly, and quite extraordinarily, it was not published.

Dear Sir
Iain Lennox says that he was expected to sing a supposed "Rebellious Scots to crush" verse of the National Anthem at a church service in 1965, which he claims appeared in a Church of Scotland "Church Hymnary", appended in the back of a King James Bible issued by the Boys Brigade (Letters, 13 April).

The facts are that the Church of Scotland produced official Hymnarys in 1898, 1927 and 1973. Today I studied Church of Scotland Hymn Books containing the Hymnary and published in 1910, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1932, 1937, 1965 and 1978, all of which cover the time period of the three editions. The offending verse does not appear in any. Only the first two verses of the Anthem appear in all Hymnarys, as they appear today on the British Monarchy website.

Moreover, it is certainly not possible that the Boys Brigade would include any verses which were not authorised by the Church of Scotland and listed in its official Hymnary.

I have no reason to doubt Mr Lennox's claim that he was expected to sing the verse, but it would not be from the Hymnary. Perhaps he is mis-remembering things. Perhaps it was from a song sheet produced by some local over-zealous Protestant anti-Jacobite.

I challenge Mr Lennox to (as he says) "go ahead, make my day" and produce a copy of such a Boys Brigade Bible, with the verse included. I would be amazed and fascinated to be mistaken.

Does the Church of Scotland, or the Boys Brigade, have anything to say on this matter?
Yours faithfully
Alistair McConnachie


  • The original 3 verses published for the first time in the October 1745 edition of the Gentleman's Magazine - none of which is the Marshal Wade verse - are virtually identical to the 3 verses of the National Anthem which exist today.

  • According to Buckingham Palace, there is no "authorised version" of the National Anthem, but the first and third of these three verses are commonly sung.

  • These are the same two verses which have been listed as the National Anthem in the Church of Scotland Hymnary since 1898.

  • The primary evidence for the existence of the Marshal Wade verse is unsatisfactory, and references no first-person contemporary accounts of the verse being sung.

  • If it was sung, it would be a sentiment supported by the majority of Scots who opposed the Jacobites.

  • If it was sung it would only be a temporary, very short-lived addition to the song, which would only be relevant during the 3-month period following the Battle of Prestonpans in late September 1745 and the replacement of Marshal Wade as head of the British forces by the Duke of Cumberland by the beginning of 1746.

  • It would become even more irrelevant to sing it after the defeat of the Jacobites in April 1746, and positively stupid to sing it after Marshal Wade's death in March 1748.

  • During the period it may have been sung, it was not part of any "National Anthem" but simply part of a rousing music hall song. It was not until the beginning of the 19th century that the original 3 published verses became established as "the National Anthem", by which time any additional verse about Marshal Wade had long since been consigned to history.

  • The verse is simply one of very many additional and alternative verses penned after the original 3 verses were published. A very large number of these have been thoroughly documented by Dr Percy A Scholes in his comprehensive treatment, God Save the Queen! The History and Romance of the World's First National Anthem - but he did not even bother to detail this one.

  • If it has been sung in the modern age, it would be either in jest or perhaps by a group which had been misled into thinking it was part of the National Anthem.

In short, the Marshal Wade verse is not, and never has been, a verse of the National Anthem. It is an alternative verse, which is likely to have been last sung in earnest, if at all, during a very short period in the latter part of 1745, as part of a music-hall song, when Wade and his British forces were fighting the Jacobites.

It exists today mainly in the minds of some Scottish nationalists who want to make a thing of it - usually to misrepresent it in a historically-illiterate manner as "anti-Scottish" instead of anti-Jacobite.

Anyone who imagines this was, or is, "the second verse", or "the third verse" or "the fourth verse" or "the fifth verse", or an "official" verse, or any particular verse, of today's National Anthem, and claims, quotes, prints, or sings it as such, is just plain wrong.

In the course of our research in May 2013, we discovered an article by "Education Scotland". It had a webpage on the verse with some information, which it adjusted accurately in February 2015. 14

Oxford Book of Eighteenth Century Verse
The verse is included as an integral fourth verse in something called the Oxford Book of Eighteenth Century Verse of 1926. 15 This can be dismissed as poor scholarship - ill-becoming of anything with the word "Oxford" in it! It wrongly references this strange 4-verse version to the Gentleman's Magazine of October 1745 - which as we have seen from the material above, includes only 3 verses, none of which refer to Marshal Wade!

To make matters worse, and to emphasise its poor scholarship, it confusingly lists the phrase Harmonia Anglicana before the incorrect Gentleman's Magazine reference, thereby rendering its "reference" pretty well incomprehensible.

Consulting Scholes, he tells us that "Harmonia Anglicana" was a separate publication which "includes no copy of God save the King." 16

Rebellious Scots to Crush: An Anthology of the Arts as Engendered by the Battle of Prestonpans in 1745
This interesting publication has a few pages on the matter of the verse. 17

We should point out that this is published by an organisation calling itself "Prestoun Grange", under the puzzling term "Prestoun Grange University Press" even though there is no such University in the UK. This organisation has published a PDF book called "Rebellious Scots to Crush". We examine it below.

On page 17 Aaron Paul Johnston lists in full the 3 verses which he notes were published in the Gentleman's Magazine, and which we list at the start of this article. (He references the date of the magazine as "15th October 1745", which is a mistake. It should be Volume 15.)

However, he then somewhat misleadingly, in italics, appends a fourth and fifth.

Lord, grant that Marshal Wade,
May by thy mighty aid,
Victory bring.
May he sedition hush
And like a torrent rush,
Rebellious Scots to crush,
God save the King.

From France and Pretender
Great Britain defend her,
Foes let them fall;
From foreign slavery,
Priests and their knavery,
And Popish Reverie,
God save us all.

He writes (our emphasis):

The two italicised verses appear shortly after the original publication, and are more than likely to be witty additions by various hands - and assuredly there were others unknown to us now - that either caught on or did not. They were probably not officially acknowledged verses, but they certainly capture the mood in the Hanoverian camp. The association of the Stuarts with French invasion and restored Catholicism is part of the standard loyalist propaganda. The appeal to Marshal Wade turns out to be optimistic, since even as the song was gaining popularity in London, Wade was performing his military duties without great distinction by failing to intercept the invasion of England in November, marching south with extraordinary tardiness, and then failing to intercept the returning Jacobites either! However, in October 1745 he was acknowledged as a competent officer with a good deal of experience in Scotland, and a stronger position to restore hope than Sir John Cope. This silent transfer of expectation speaks volumes: God Save the King was written as a prayer to God for salvation from the Jacobites, in response to a completely unexpected reverse on the battlefield. Why else would the loyalists need such a song?

He is correct to say these verses were "not officially acknowledged" - there is no "probably" about it.

However, they have never appeared together in a publication contemporary with that period, in the manner in which Johnson is implying by running them together in this way.

We consulted Scholes to find out more about the "From France and pretender" verse.

Scholes writes at the start of his Chapter 13 entitled, "The Never-Ending Flood of New Poems" - which lists a variety of alternative verses - that, "This flood began in the very year of first publication (1745) and has not yet ceased. Many of the new poems are, of course, topical, i.e. adapted to the circumstances of the time." 18

He draws attention to the publication of another version with 2 new verses in the November 1745 edition of the Scots Magazine 19 - the very next month after the Gentleman's Magazine issue.

Note that the Scots Magazine calls it an "Anthem", but this is not intended to mean a "National" one - rather in the sense of religious music, as something for a church choir (Chambers 20th Century definition).

God save the King, Scots Magazine version, November 1745 at page 522
The ANTHEM sung at both the theatres at London, altered.

God save our valiant King,
Long live our noble King,
God save the King;
Send him victorious,
Happy and glorious,
Long to reign over us;
God save the King.

George is magnanimous,
Subjects unanimous,
Peace to us bring;
His fame is glorious,
Reign meritorious;
Let him rule over us;
God save the King.

From France and pretender,
Great Britain defend her,
Foes let them fall;
From foreign slavery,
Priests, and their knavery,
And Popish reverie,
God save us all.

Therefore, we find that the "From France and pretender" alternative verse appeared for the first time in the Scots Magazine of November 1745 and was not connected to the Marshal Wade verse - even though Johnson has linked them together in his dissertation, tending to give a misleading impression that this is some kind of 5-verse British National Anthem, which still exists today.

These verses appeared in separate places and have never appeared together, at the time, or in the manner in which Johnson has presented them. (Perhaps he has simply copied these five verses from another modern publication which has made the same mistake.)

Appendix 3
The Reverend William Edward Hickson (1803-1870 ) wrote an additional 4 verses, the last of which has been known to have been sung at official events as part of the National Anthem, including at the Kirking of the Scottish Parliament at St Giles Cathedral on Wednesday 30 June 1999.

The Rev Hickson's four alternative verses for the National Anthem are found in the Hymnary of the Church of Scotland at Hymn 632. (The editions we checked were circa 1946 and 1965.)

His fourth verse reads:

Nor on this land alone,
But, be Gods mercy's known,
From shore to shore.
Lord make the nations see,
That men should brothers be,
And form one family,
The wide world o'er.

Even these sentiments do not appeal to everyone. When sung at a ceremony for Birmingham's female Lord Mayor in May 1996, the fifth line was considered to marginalise women and was changed to "That all should united be". 20

Appendix 4
For this article we have been indebted to the most extensive and authoritative book on the National Anthem written in the modern era, by the historian of music Dr. Percy A. Scholes, God Save the Queen! The History and Romance of the World's First National Anthem. From the inside cover of the dust jacket of the 1954 edition we read:

In 1941, Dr. Percy Scholes started work on a history of the British National Anthem. After studying everything written on the subject by his predecessors he diligently sifted whatever further information was to be found in his own extensive library and in the collections of manuscripts, books, periodicals, and music in the British Museum, the Bodleian Library, the National Library of Wales, and the Henry Watson Music Library in Manchester, as well as the Library of Congress in Washington, and other British and American libraries.

An outline of the results of his researches was published in 1942 in the form of a small booklet which soon went out of print. The time has now come for the appearance of a more ample treatment which can serve as an authoritative record of all that is at present known of the perplexing and absorbing history of the oldest and most widely used of all national anthems...

Altogether this is a book of considerable interest for the student and general reader alike; it can safety be said that Dr. Scholes has put on record everything of consequence that is known - or perhaps ever will be - of the first and greatest of National Anthems: God Save the Queen!

We have also been immensely indebted to Google Books, to Harvard University, and to Indiana University for enabling the digitisation of many of the old copies of the Gentleman's Magazine and the Scots Magazine and thereby enabling us to work from primary documents. Thank you for your work!

We welcome any more information on this matter. Please contact us.

(1) Gentleman's Magazine, "A Song for two Voices. As sung at both Playhouses", October 1745, at 552.
(2) Gentleman's Magazine, "His Majesty's most gracious SPEECH to both Houses of Parliament, Oct. 17." October 1745, at 539. George II's speech is dated 17 October, and this magazine is "October 1745" and so the magazine must have been produced sometime in the latter part of October.
(3) Percy A Scholes, God Save the Queen! The History and Romance of the World's First National Anthem, (Oxford University Press: 1954).
(4) Ibid at 13. In this article we do not go into the history of the melody, or the words of the first verse, which are similar to versions which existed prior to this date. This has been covered extensively by Scholes in his Chapter 8, "Had There Been Performances in an Earlier Period", at 49-67, and also by Richard Clark in his 1822 essay mentioned in our text.
(5) Ibid at 9.
(6) A spokesman for Buckingham Palace quoted in David Graves and Mark Storey, "Feminists' plea neuters the national anthem", The Daily Telegraph, 29-5-96, p. 3.
(7) See the Official Website of the British Monarchy at
(8) The Church of Scotland produced official Hymnarys in 1898, 1927 and 1973 and we have checked editions from 1910, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1932, 1937, 1965 and 1978, all of which cover the time period of the three editions.
(9) Richard Clark, An Account of the National Anthem entitled God Save the King! (London: W. Wright, Fleet Street, 1822) at 8. Available online here.
(10) Mr Urban "The History of 'God Save the King'", Gentleman's Magazine, October 1836 at 369-374. Available online here
(11) For example, "this Scotophobic verse is seldom sung", Joan McAlpine, "Anthem for the Common People", Sunday Times Scotland, 21-12-97, Comment section, p. 12.
(12) Scholes, Op Cit at 36.
(13) Linda Colley, Britons: Forging the Nation 1707-1837, (Yale University Press, 2012 edition) at 45.
(14) Education Scotland, "'Rebellious Scots to crush'". Article at (Downloaded on 27 May 2013.)
(15) The page can be viewed online at (Downloaded 27 May 2013.)
(16) Scholes, Op Cit at 306-307.
(17) Rebellious Scots to Crush: An Anthology of the Arts as Engendered by the Battle of Prestonpans in 1745, Selected with Commentaries by Arran Paul Johnston (Published by Prestoungrange University Press in association with Burke's Peerage & Gentry, for The Battle of Prestonpans 1745 Heritage Trust: 2008), at 16-20.
(18) Scholes, Op Cit at 111.
(19) Scots Magazine, November 1745, at 522. This edition can be found online here.
(20) David Graves and Mark Storey, Op Cit at 3.

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